10th International Symposium on
Aerodynamics and Ventilation of Vehicle Tunnels
Boston, USA: 1-3 November 2000

Papers presented at this conference, as outlined in the Contents below, are available in a bound volume of proceedings from Mrs Marian Rolfe at BHR Group.

The next conference in this series will be held in 2009. See our new website for more details.

Introduction
The Aerodynamics and Ventilation of Vehicle Tunnels Symposium was inaugurated in 1973, and the series has gathered momentum in Europe over the years, to become a truly international meeting of world leaders in the field of tunnel ventilation. It is therefore fitting that the first Symposium of the new Millenium crossed the Atlantic to Boston, USA, adding a new dimension to the discussions and opportunities that always arise from this meeting.

When considering the programme the committee took a conscious decision to focus on the technical aspects of Principles, Analysis and Design, supported by case studies to illustrate practical experiences around

Contents

OPENING ADDRESS
A S Caserta, Federal Highway Administrator, Washington DC, USA

ROAD VENTILATION PRINCIPLES
The impact of NFPA Standard 502 on road tunnel ventilation
A G Bendelius, Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas Inc, USA; C Dubay, National Fire Protection Association, USA

Impact on health of exposure in road tunnels
M Björnbäck, Swedish National Road Administration, Sweden; G Bylin, M Svartengren, S Jungnelius, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; T Bellander, Stockholm County Council, Sweden; C-E Boström, Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Sweden; C Johansson, Stockholm University, Sweden; K-G Westerlund, Environment and Health Protection Administration,Stockholm, Sweden

Three dimensional computer graphics simulator for a visual effect of road tunnel ventilation control
I Nakahori, Sohatsu Systems Laboratory Inc, Japan; T Nakayuki, H Furusawa, H Fukushima, Mitsubishi Electric Corp, Japan

Modelling of tunnel fires - verification and validation
N Rhodes, Mott MacDonald, UK

Ventilation characteristics with longitudinal diffusion in road tunnel
T Yamada, Nihon Maintenance Co Ltd, Japan; K Komatsu, E Murata, Ebara Corporation, Japan; T Shimokawa, Metropolitan Expressway Public Corporation, Japan

Designing an expert system to control tunnel ventilation based on directly measured traffic characteristics
E Jacques, Université Catholique Louvain, Belgium; L Possoz, Mitec sa, Belgium

Smoke control in tunnel fires: should we talk about critical velocity or critical mass flow rate?
O Vauquelin, D Telle, University of Valenciennes, France; E Casalé, Scetauroute, France

Evaluation of a simulation system for various longitudinal ventilation tunnels
S Azuma, E Mori, Japan Highway Public Corporation, Japan; T Ishizuka, Dosys Co Ltd, Japan; T Nakayuki, H Fukushima, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Japan

A ventilation simulator for road tunnel control
A Ichikawa, Japan Highway Public Corporation, Japan; A E Vardy, University of Dundee, UK

RAIL AERODYNAMICS PRINCIPLES
The factors affecting draught relief and air temperature in an underground metro system
C W Pope, D G Newman, D A Henson, Mott MacDonald Limited, UK

Parametrical investigations on aerodynamic effects in tunnels - prediction and validation
H-J Wormstall-Reitschuster, G Matschke, C Heine, Deutsche Bahn AG, Germany

Sonic booms - do I have a problem?
K Matsubayashi, Tokyo National College of Technology, Japan; J Brown, A E Vardy, University of Dundee, UK

Tunnel aerodynamic design within the European high speed rail network
R G Gawthorpe, Independent Consultant and European Rail Research Institute, UK

Tunnel pressure comfort limits examined using passenger comfort ratings
T Johnson, T Prevezer,G Figura-Hardy, AEA Technology Rail, Derby, UK

RAIL VENTILATION PRINCIPLES
Operating mode tables: an approach to tunnel ventilation control logic
D M Plotkin, J W Guinan, W D Kennedy, Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas Inc, USA

The development and testing of the Subway Environment Simulation Version 2000
W D Kennedy, S K Li, T P O'Dwyer, Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas Inc, USA

A model for the dispersion of contaminants in the subway environment
L R Coke, J G Sanchez, A J Policastro, Argonne National Laboratory, USA

CFD simulation of a vehicle fire in a station equipped with platform screen doors
P C Miclea, D M McKinney, Kaiser Engineers Inc, USA

Simulation of flow and CO2 concentration inside trains coupled with unsteady tunnel aerodynamics
A Rudolf, A Peiffer, DaimlerChrysler Railsystems GmbH, Germany; P A Monkewitz, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland

ROAD VENTILATION ANALYSIS
Interference of contaminated air in successive tunnels linked by a snow shed
A Mizuno, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kogakuin University, Japan; T Satoh, Japan Highway Public Corporation, Japan; Y Hattori, Expressway Technology Center, Japan; T Kanoh, Pacific Consultants Co Ltd, Japan

Aerodynamic forces exerted by vehicles and their impact on tunnel installations
W Stroppa, ILF Consulting Engineers, Austria; K Pucher, J Rodler, Technical University Graz, Austria

CFD model for jet fan ventilation systems
K Karki, S Patankar, Innovative Research Inc, USA; E Rosenbluth, S Levy, Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas Inc, USA

Pilot plant for NOx cleaning technology for road tunnel exhaust gas
M Takahashi, Kobe Steel Ltd, Japan; I Kubota, Ministry of Construction, Japan; Y Toya, Advanced Construction Technology Center, Japan; T Kashiuchi, Shimizu Corporation, Japan

Relationships for determining the dispersion of portal emissions from one-way roadway tunnels
M D Vanderheyden, Rowan Williams Davies & Irwin, Canada; C B Nadel, Bechtel/Parsons Brinckerhoff, USA

Energy consumption of longitudinally ventilated road tunnels
G F Poole, G W Davies, Symonds Group Ltd, UK

Appropriate JF installation interval obtained by booster capacity measurements
A Mizuno, Kogakuin University, Japan; T Azuma, A Ichikawa, Japan Highway Public Corporation, Japan; T Kanoh, Pacific Consultants Co Ltd, Japan

RAIL VENTILATION DESIGN
Emergency ventilation system for the Boston Transitway
S J Patel, T P O'Dwyer,R F O'Brien, Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas Inc, USA; M R Ainsley, Massachusetts Bay Transit Authority, USA

Simulations and ventilation system design for the Tren Urbano subway project in Puerto Rico
I Y Maevski, Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, New York, USA; J F Fay, Sverdrup Technology/TEAS Group, USA

Principles Adopted for the design of tunnel ventilation and enviromental control system in Dehli Metro
S Kumar, D D Pahuja and A Bakre, Dhelhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited, New Delhi, India

Evaluation of emergency ventilation in three subway stations
J L Slusarczyk, J R Sinclair, M Bliemel, Rowan Williams Davies & Irwin Inc.,Ontario, Canada; S Agrawal, Los Angeles Metropolitan Transit Authority, USA

Parametric analysis of metro system ventilation alternatives
G Leoutsakos, Attiko Metro, Greece; J A Grindley, D A Henson, R M Clare, Mott MacDonald, UK

Smoke management analysis of a subway station with platform screen doors
K H Yang, S K Lee, National Sun Yat-Sen University, China; B Y Tsuei, C H Su, China Engineering Consultants Inc, China

New ventilation for the historic Newark City Subway
K A Giblin, New Jersey Transit Corporation, USA; J W Guinan, C E Cunniffe, Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas Inc, USA

FIRE AND SMOKE
Numerical simulation of the emergency tunnel ventilation for a tunnel with longitudinal and transverse systems combined
M Dobashi, T Imai, Nagoya Expressway Public Corporation, Japan; H Yanagi, Echo Plan Co, Japan; A Mizuno, Kogakuin University, Japan

Backlayering characteristics of thermal fume during tunnel fires in Hanshin Expressway
T Ishikawa, N Kawabata, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Fukui University, Japan; H Tottori, Hanshin Expressway Public Corporation, Japan; M Ishida, Chiyoda Engineering Consultants Co Ltd, Japan

CFD simulation of fire smoke behaviour with transverse ventilation: comparison with model tests
F Demouge, D Lacroix,Centre d'Etudes des Tunnels, France; B Gay, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, France

Sprint: a design tool for fire ventilation
I Riess, M Bettelini, R Brandt, HBI Haerter AG, Switzerland

Control of smoke flow in tunnel fires using longitudinal ventilation systems - a study of the critical velocity
Y Wu, M Z A Bakar, Sheffield University, UK; S Jagger, R Bettis, J Allen, Health and Safety Laboratory, UK

Analysis of full scale fire tests
G Auguin, B E Forestier, G Giovannelli, Institut de Recherche sur les Phenomenes hors Equilibre, France; E Casalé, SCETAUROUTE, France

A "footprint" technique for rapidly assessing the effectiveness of emergency ventilation systems
J R Day, M Spoerri, A Turi, Electrowatt Engineering Ltd, Switzerland

Transport of smoke species downstream of railway tunnel fires
W S Bradbury, D M Deaves, W S Atkins, UK

Improved simulation of fire and smoke spread in tunnels, with applications and display of results by a virtual reality system
M C Gunton, S Amaratunga, I Cowan, M H Watson, WS Atkins Consultants Ltd, UK

Forced stratification in the case of a fire in an underground railway station
E Casalé, Scetauroute Tunnelling Division, France; A Weatherill, Bonnard et Gardel, Switzerland; J Ouazzani, Arcofluid, France; P Favre, Alpetransit, Switzerland

RAIL AERODYNAMIC ANALYSIS
The use of ballast to attenuate wave fronts
J Brown, A E Vardy, University of Dundee, UK

Prediction of the aerodynamic environment in subterranean railway stations
P Deeg, D Franck, G Matschke, B Schulte-Werning, Deutsche Bahn AG, Germany

Dimensioning of tunnels for passenger comfort in the Netherlands
E C Klaver, E Kassies, Project Organisation High-Speed Line, The Netherlands

A pressure wave emitted from openings of tunnel wall
S Ozawa, Tokyo University of Technology, Japan; K Murata, Railway Technical Research Institute, Japan

Prediction of pressure wave generation by high-speed trains entering tunnel using a commercial CFD code - A simplified approach.
D K H Wu, Parsons Brinclerhoff (Asia) Limited, Hong Kong

A pressure wave radiated from a tunnel entrance when a train enters a tunnel
M Iida, K Kikuchi, T Fukuda, Railway Technical Research Institute, Japan

The effect of baffle plates on the propagation of compression waves through a tunnel
P Pesava, H Sockel, Technical University of Vienna, Austria

Moving model rig tests on a tunnel with a porous entrance and with an airshaft - measurements and validation of THERMOTUN predictions
T Johnson, S Dalley, AEA Technology Rail, UK

Modelling of airflow and heat transfer in a train/tunnel annulus
D K Petersen, Black and Veatch, USA; R C Arnold, W N Weins, University of Nebraska, USA

ROAD VENTILATION DESIGN
Ventilation of Talon tunnel
M J Jafari, University of Shahid Beheshti, Iran; H Kanani Moghaddam, Laniz Co, Iran

Smoke control for the Ted Williams Tunnel - a comparative study of extraction rate
S S Levy, J R Sandzimier, Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas Inc, USA

Air quality monitoring system in Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport - North Tunnel
J Buraczynski, S J Patel, M Cheeseman, Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas Inc, USA; C Gatz, Wayne County Dept of Public Works, USA

Design of the tunnel ventilation system for the Western Harbour Crossing
A W H Leung, E K Y Cheung, Parsons Brinckerhoff (Asia) Limited, Hong Kong

RAIL AERODYNAMIC DESIGN
Fires in long railway tunnels: the ventilation concepts adopted in the AlpTransit projects
C Rudin, HBI Haerter AG, Switzerland

The aerodynamics of smoke detection: validation of Eurotunnel's onboard smoke detection system
W M S Bradbury, W S Atkins, UK,W E Brinkmeyer, Eurotunnel UK.

CFD application for subway stations
A Zigh, I Ong, K Kang, Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas Inc, USA

CFD analysis of pressure transients due to train passage in tunnel
R M H Yau, V S Y Cheng, Ove Arup & Partners Hong Kong Ltd, Hong Kong

Aerodynamic analysis of the Tai Lam Tunnel
T S W Chiu, W H W Chan, R K Man, Parsons Brinckerhoff (Asia), Hong Kong

Pressure relief - trends and benefits of incorporating airshafts into railway tunnels
G Figura-Hardy, AEA Technology Rail, UK

Tunnel optimized train nose shape
J-L Peters, Siemens Krauss-Maffei Locomotives Ltd, Germany

FANS AND EJECTORS
Low noise GRP fans for tunnel applications
F van Vemden, Ventilatoren Sirocco Howden, The Netherlands

The revival of Saccardo ejectors: fundamentals, advantages and economic
M Tabarra, R D Matthews, B J Kenrick, CenTAR, South Bank University, UK

Experimental investigation of interaction of plain jet fans mounted in series
A D Martegani, G Pavesi, C Barbetta, Woods Italiana SpA, Italy

Jet fan thrust performance evaluation
T Saika, Kogakuin University, Japan; K Nakajima, S Setoyama, Japan Highway Public Corporation, Japan; S Haraguchi, Matsushita Seiko Co Ltd, Japan; M Miyake, Matsushita Electric Industrial Co Ltd, Japan; T Kanoh, Pacific Consultants Co Ltd, Japan
Contents

OPENING ADDRESS
A S Caserta, Federal Highway Administrator, Washington DC, USA

ROAD VENTILATION PRINCIPLES
The impact of NFPA Standard 502 on road tunnel ventilation
A G Bendelius, Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas Inc, USA; C Dubay, National Fire Protection Association, USA

Impact on health of exposure in road tunnels
M Björnbäck, Swedish National Road Administration, Sweden; G Bylin, M Svartengren, S Jungnelius, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; T Bellander, Stockholm County Council, Sweden; C-E Boström, Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Sweden; C Johansson, Stockholm University, Sweden; K-G Westerlund, Environment and Health Protection Administration,Stockholm, Sweden

Three dimensional computer graphics simulator for a visual effect of road tunnel ventilation control
I Nakahori, Sohatsu Systems Laboratory Inc, Japan; T Nakayuki, H Furusawa, H Fukushima, Mitsubishi Electric Corp, Japan

Modelling of tunnel fires - verification and validation
N Rhodes, Mott MacDonald, UK

Ventilation characteristics with longitudinal diffusion in road tunnel
T Yamada, Nihon Maintenance Co Ltd, Japan; K Komatsu, E Murata, Ebara Corporation, Japan; T Shimokawa, Metropolitan Expressway Public Corporation, Japan

Designing an expert system to control tunnel ventilation based on directly measured traffic characteristics
E Jacques, Université Catholique Louvain, Belgium; L Possoz, Mitec sa, Belgium

Smoke control in tunnel fires: should we talk about critical velocity or critical mass flow rate?
O Vauquelin, D Telle, University of Valenciennes, France; E Casalé, Scetauroute, France

Evaluation of a simulation system for various longitudinal ventilation tunnels
S Azuma, E Mori, Japan Highway Public Corporation, Japan; T Ishizuka, Dosys Co Ltd, Japan; T Nakayuki, H Fukushima, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Japan

A ventilation simulator for road tunnel control
A Ichikawa, Japan Highway Public Corporation, Japan; A E Vardy, University of Dundee, UK

RAIL AERODYNAMICS PRINCIPLES
The factors affecting draught relief and air temperature in an underground metro system
C W Pope, D G Newman, D A Henson, Mott MacDonald Limited, UK

Parametrical investigations on aerodynamic effects in tunnels - prediction and validation
H-J Wormstall-Reitschuster, G Matschke, C Heine, Deutsche Bahn AG, Germany

Sonic booms - do I have a problem?
K Matsubayashi, Tokyo National College of Technology, Japan; J Brown, A E Vardy, University of Dundee, UK

Tunnel aerodynamic design within the European high speed rail network
R G Gawthorpe, Independent Consultant and European Rail Research Institute, UK

Tunnel pressure comfort limits examined using passenger comfort ratings
T Johnson, T Prevezer,G Figura-Hardy, AEA Technology Rail, Derby, UK

RAIL VENTILATION PRINCIPLES
Operating mode tables: an approach to tunnel ventilation control logic
D M Plotkin, J W Guinan, W D Kennedy, Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas Inc, USA

The development and testing of the Subway Environment Simulation Version 2000
W D Kennedy, S K Li, T P O'Dwyer, Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas Inc, USA

A model for the dispersion of contaminants in the subway environment
L R Coke, J G Sanchez, A J Policastro, Argonne National Laboratory, USA

CFD simulation of a vehicle fire in a station equipped with platform screen doors
P C Miclea, D M McKinney, Kaiser Engineers Inc, USA

Simulation of flow and CO2 concentration inside trains coupled with unsteady tunnel aerodynamics
A Rudolf, A Peiffer, DaimlerChrysler Railsystems GmbH, Germany; P A Monkewitz, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland

ROAD VENTILATION ANALYSIS
Interference of contaminated air in successive tunnels linked by a snow shed
A Mizuno, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kogakuin University, Japan; T Satoh, Japan Highway Public Corporation, Japan; Y Hattori, Expressway Technology Center, Japan; T Kanoh, Pacific Consultants Co Ltd, Japan

Aerodynamic forces exerted by vehicles and their impact on tunnel installations
W Stroppa, ILF Consulting Engineers, Austria; K Pucher, J Rodler, Technical University Graz, Austria

CFD model for jet fan ventilation systems
K Karki, S Patankar, Innovative Research Inc, USA; E Rosenbluth, S Levy, Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas Inc, USA

Pilot plant for NOx cleaning technology for road tunnel exhaust gas
M Takahashi, Kobe Steel Ltd, Japan; I Kubota, Ministry of Construction, Japan; Y Toya, Advanced Construction Technology Center, Japan; T Kashiuchi, Shimizu Corporation, Japan

Relationships for determining the dispersion of portal emissions from one-way roadway tunnels
M D Vanderheyden, Rowan Williams Davies & Irwin, Canada; C B Nadel, Bechtel/Parsons Brinckerhoff, USA

Energy consumption of longitudinally ventilated road tunnels
G F Poole, G W Davies, Symonds Group Ltd, UK

Appropriate JF installation interval obtained by booster capacity measurements
A Mizuno, Kogakuin University, Japan; T Azuma, A Ichikawa, Japan Highway Public Corporation, Japan; T Kanoh, Pacific Consultants Co Ltd, Japan

RAIL VENTILATION DESIGN
Emergency ventilation system for the Boston Transitway
S J Patel, T P O'Dwyer,R F O'Brien, Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas Inc, USA; M R Ainsley, Massachusetts Bay Transit Authority, USA

Simulations and ventilation system design for the Tren Urbano subway project in Puerto Rico
I Y Maevski, Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, New York, USA; J F Fay, Sverdrup Technology/TEAS Group, USA

Principles Adopted for the design of tunnel ventilation and enviromental control system in Dehli Metro
S Kumar, D D Pahuja and A Bakre, Dhelhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited, New Delhi, India

Evaluation of emergency ventilation in three subway stations
J L Slusarczyk, J R Sinclair, M Bliemel, Rowan Williams Davies & Irwin Inc.,Ontario, Canada; S Agrawal, Los Angeles Metropolitan Transit Authority, USA

Parametric analysis of metro system ventilation alternatives
G Leoutsakos, Attiko Metro, Greece; J A Grindley, D A Henson, R M Clare, Mott MacDonald, UK

Smoke management analysis of a subway station with platform screen doors
K H Yang, S K Lee, National Sun Yat-Sen University, China; B Y Tsuei, C H Su, China Engineering Consultants Inc, China

New ventilation for the historic Newark City Subway
K A Giblin, New Jersey Transit Corporation, USA; J W Guinan, C E Cunniffe, Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas Inc, USA

FIRE AND SMOKE
Numerical simulation of the emergency tunnel ventilation for a tunnel with longitudinal and transverse systems combined
M Dobashi, T Imai, Nagoya Expressway Public Corporation, Japan; H Yanagi, Echo Plan Co, Japan; A Mizuno, Kogakuin University, Japan

Backlayering characteristics of thermal fume during tunnel fires in Hanshin Expressway
T Ishikawa, N Kawabata, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Fukui University, Japan; H Tottori, Hanshin Expressway Public Corporation, Japan; M Ishida, Chiyoda Engineering Consultants Co Ltd, Japan

CFD simulation of fire smoke behaviour with transverse ventilation: comparison with model tests
F Demouge, D Lacroix,Centre d'Etudes des Tunnels, France; B Gay, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, France

Sprint: a design tool for fire ventilation
I Riess, M Bettelini, R Brandt, HBI Haerter AG, Switzerland

Control of smoke flow in tunnel fires using longitudinal ventilation systems - a study of the critical velocity
Y Wu, M Z A Bakar, Sheffield University, UK; S Jagger, R Bettis, J Allen, Health and Safety Laboratory, UK

Analysis of full scale fire tests
G Auguin, B E Forestier, G Giovannelli, Institut de Recherche sur les Phenomenes hors Equilibre, France; E Casalé, SCETAUROUTE, France

A "footprint" technique for rapidly assessing the effectiveness of emergency ventilation systems
J R Day, M Spoerri, A Turi, Electrowatt Engineering Ltd, Switzerland

Transport of smoke species downstream of railway tunnel fires
W S Bradbury, D M Deaves, W S Atkins, UK

Improved simulation of fire and smoke spread in tunnels, with applications and display of results by a virtual reality system
M C Gunton, S Amaratunga, I Cowan, M H Watson, WS Atkins Consultants Ltd, UK

Forced stratification in the case of a fire in an underground railway station
E Casalé, Scetauroute Tunnelling Division, France; A Weatherill, Bonnard et Gardel, Switzerland; J Ouazzani, Arcofluid, France; P Favre, Alpetransit, Switzerland

RAIL AERODYNAMIC ANALYSIS
The use of ballast to attenuate wave fronts
J Brown, A E Vardy, University of Dundee, UK

Prediction of the aerodynamic environment in subterranean railway stations
P Deeg, D Franck, G Matschke, B Schulte-Werning, Deutsche Bahn AG, Germany

Dimensioning of tunnels for passenger comfort in the Netherlands
E C Klaver, E Kassies, Project Organisation High-Speed Line, The Netherlands

A pressure wave emitted from openings of tunnel wall
S Ozawa, Tokyo University of Technology, Japan; K Murata, Railway Technical Research Institute, Japan

Prediction of pressure wave generation by high-speed trains entering tunnel using a commercial CFD code - A simplified approach.
D K H Wu, Parsons Brinclerhoff (Asia) Limited, Hong Kong

A pressure wave radiated from a tunnel entrance when a train enters a tunnel
M Iida, K Kikuchi, T Fukuda, Railway Technical Research Institute, Japan

The effect of baffle plates on the propagation of compression waves through a tunnel
P Pesava, H Sockel, Technical University of Vienna, Austria

Moving model rig tests on a tunnel with a porous entrance and with an airshaft - measurements and validation of THERMOTUN predictions
T Johnson, S Dalley, AEA Technology Rail, UK

Modelling of airflow and heat transfer in a train/tunnel annulus
D K Petersen, Black and Veatch, USA; R C Arnold, W N Weins, University of Nebraska, USA

ROAD VENTILATION DESIGN
Ventilation of Talon tunnel
M J Jafari, University of Shahid Beheshti, Iran; H Kanani Moghaddam, Laniz Co, Iran

Smoke control for the Ted Williams Tunnel - a comparative study of extraction rate
S S Levy, J R Sandzimier, Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas Inc, USA

Air quality monitoring system in Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport - North Tunnel
J Buraczynski, S J Patel, M Cheeseman, Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas Inc, USA; C Gatz, Wayne County Dept of Public Works, USA

Design of the tunnel ventilation system for the Western Harbour Crossing
A W H Leung, E K Y Cheung, Parsons Brinckerhoff (Asia) Limited, Hong Kong

RAIL AERODYNAMIC DESIGN
Fires in long railway tunnels: the ventilation concepts adopted in the AlpTransit projects
C Rudin, HBI Haerter AG, Switzerland

The aerodynamics of smoke detection: validation of Eurotunnel's onboard smoke detection system
W M S Bradbury, W S Atkins, UK,W E Brinkmeyer, Eurotunnel UK.

CFD application for subway stations
A Zigh, I Ong, K Kang, Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas Inc, USA

CFD analysis of pressure transients due to train passage in tunnel
R M H Yau, V S Y Cheng, Ove Arup & Partners Hong Kong Ltd, Hong Kong

Aerodynamic analysis of the Tai Lam Tunnel
T S W Chiu, W H W Chan, R K Man, Parsons Brinckerhoff (Asia), Hong Kong

Pressure relief - trends and benefits of incorporating airshafts into railway tunnels
G Figura-Hardy, AEA Technology Rail, UK

Tunnel optimized train nose shape
J-L Peters, Siemens Krauss-Maffei Locomotives Ltd, Germany

FANS AND EJECTORS
Low noise GRP fans for tunnel applications
F van Vemden, Ventilatoren Sirocco Howden, The Netherlands

The revival of Saccardo ejectors: fundamentals, advantages and economic
M Tabarra, R D Matthews, B J Kenrick, CenTAR, South Bank University, UK

Experimental investigation of interaction of plain jet fans mounted in series
A D Martegani, G Pavesi, C Barbetta, Woods Italiana SpA, Italy

Jet fan thrust performance evaluation
T Saika, Kogakuin University, Japan; K Nakajima, S Setoyama, Japan Highway Public Corporation, Japan; S Haraguchi, Matsushita Seiko Co Ltd, Japan; M Miyake, Matsushita Electric Industrial Co Ltd, Japan; T Kanoh, Pacific Consultants Co Ltd, Japan

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