11th International Symposium on
Aerodynamics and Ventilation of Vehicle Tunnels
Luzern, Switzerland: 7-9 July 2003

Papers presented at this Symposium as outlined in the contents below, are available in a bound volume of proceedings from Mrs Marian Rolfe at BHR Group.

The next conference in this series will be in 2009, so please see our new website for details.


Following a highly successful meeting in Boston, where delegates had the opportunity to see work on the Big Dig, it was appropriate that the symposium should return to Europe to meet in 2003. With the Swiss authorities' ambitious plans for longer, deeper Alpine tunnels and after a number of serious incidents in Alpine tunnels in the last four years, the Symposium considered the full range of issues facing tunnel engineers, from the high level issues of planning, cost and safety to the practicalities of assessing, maintaining and upgrading existing ventilation systems.

Contents of Proceedings

Opening Address
August Blunschi, Swiss Federal Office of Transportation

Post Fire (Road)
Upgrading the ventilation of the Gotthard road tunnel
M Bettelini, A Henke, Lombardi Ltd Consulting Engineers; W Steiner, M Gagliardi, Gotthard Road Tunnel

A new approach to the ventilation of Grand St.Bernardo International Tunnel
M Bruni, R Arditi, SINA, Italy

General Principles I
Tunnel fire size and temperature variations, smoke expansion losses
BA Břrreson, GA Dahle, Techno Consult, Norway

Smoke control in tunnels with slope using longitudinal ventilation - effect of tunnel slope on critical velocity
Y Wu, Sheffield University, UK

Behaviour of fire plume in large cross sectional tunnel
Y Kunikane, N Kawabata, Fukui University, Japan; K Takekuni, A Shimoda, Japan Highway Public Corporation, Japan

Fires in tunnels: integration of the numerical simulation in the automatic ventilation responses-lessons drawn from the full scale fire tests in the Mont Blanc tunnel
E Casalé, B Houseaux, H Biollay, Scetautoroute Tunnelling Division, France

General Principles II
Abrupt windshield fogging in two-way traffic road tunnels
R Bopp, S Haag, A Peter, Gruner AG, Switzerland

On the plug-holing in case of tunnel fire
O Vauquelin, University of Valenciennes, France; J Viot, Mott MacDonald, UK

Meeting consumer expectations for air quality in tunnels
A Irwin, G Hudson (akn R Bartlett, A Troyak) Norman Disney & Young, Australia

"Maunsim", a dynamic simulator of airflow and pollution for road tunnel networks with longitudinal ventilation
M Meissner, C Stacey, Maunsell Australia Pty Ltd, Australia

A comparison of the tunnel ventilation systems for railway tunnels and road tunnels
T Chiu, S Lai, C W Wong, Parsons Brinckerhoff (Asia) Ltd, Hong Kong

Two-layer theory applied to the phenomenon of backlayering
B P Rigter, Ministry of Public Works, The Netherlands

Evaluation of a simplified model for the design of ventilation systems in tunnel networks
N Waterson, J Lavedrine, Mott MacDonald, UK

A numerical simulation of the trackside exhaust system of underground station of Seoul 9th line for ventilation operation and smoke exhaust operation in case of carriage fire
N Hur, C-S Won, K Jegal, Sogana University, South Korea

Modelling smoke migration in the redeveloped Kings Cross station
D Abi-Zadeh, M Tabarra, N Mawjee, Ove Arup & Partners International, UK; I Kingham, Metronet Rail SSL Ltd, UK

Numerical simulations of a full-scale fire test in a transverse ventilated tunnel with an elaborated low Reynolds number model
G Auguin, B Forestier, Les Universites d'Aix-Marseille, France; G Giovanelli, Agefluid, France; E Casalé, Scetautoroute, France

A real time 3D ventilation simulator for tunnel
A Weatherill, B Crausaz, X Guigas, Bonnard & Gardell Consulting Engineers, Switzerland

Practical Design Solutions (Rail I)
The choice of operation regimes in a maintenance system of air quality in a North-Mujsky railway tunnel
S Gendler, St Petersburg State Mining Institute, Russia; V Sokolov, OJSC "Lenmetrotrans", Russia

Jet fan ventilation systems for the St. Louis MetroLink Light Rail System
S Patel, Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, USA

Design and analysis of tunnel ventilation system for the extension of an existing railway tunnel in Hong Kong
F Lai, R Yau, V Cheng, KP Lau, Ove Arup & Partners Hong Kong Ltd

Optimization of station air-conditioning system in mass transit subways
JG Sanchez, Ventilation Consultant, USA

Design of ventilation systems for the trainshed and tunnels of Grand Central Terminal, New York
N Rhodes, J Castro, Hatch Mott MacDonald, USA; MW Savchak, Metro North Railroad, USA

Practical Design Solutions (Rail II)
King's Cross underground station redevelopment: analysis of air temperature, velocity, pressure and quality conditions
D Abi-Zadeh, S Sadokierski, N Casey, Ove Arup & Partners International, UK; B Hodges, Metronet Rail SSL Ltd, UK

Countermeasures for reducing micro-pressure wave at the stage of propagation of the compression wave through a tunnel
S Ozawa, Tokyo University of Technology, Japan; T Fukuda, M Iida, K Murata, T Maeda, Railway Technical Research Institute, Japan

The use of orifice plates for the reduction of underground station air velocities
T Prevezer, T Johnson, AEA Technology Rail, UK

Prediction of unsteady heatgains using SES analysis in an interchange subway station of Delhi metro
S Kumar, D D Pahuja, A Bakre, S K Saha, Delhi Metro Rail Corporation, India

Practical Design Solutions (Road)
A practical approach for evaluating ventilation air duct performance in an existing road tunnel
JA Gonzalez, SS Levy, T Abrahamson, Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, USA

The aerodynamic characteristics of longitudinal tunnel ventilation systems using multiple extraction and injection nozzles
R Matthews, CenTAR, UK; R Clare, C Pope, Mott MacDonald, UK

The ventilation system and emergency simulation of the Shinjuku Tunnel
S Yachi, A Mizuno, Kogakuin University, Japan; M Makino, M Sangu, Takanori Ito, Metropolitan Expressway Public Corporation, Japan

The development of the ventilation systems for the Schlund and Spier tunnels on the A2 motorway near Luzern, Switzerland
J Day, A Turi, Electrowatt Infra Ltd, Switzerland

Measurement of pollution levels in three alpine road tunnels
B Vidal, P Carlotti, B Brousse, Centre d'Etudes des Tunnels, France

Keynote Address:
Are the will of the client and the constraints of the budget emerging as the greatest threats to human life and tunnel fabric in the 21st Century?
Arnold Dix, Counsel-at-Law, Australia

The detailed design and commissioning of a road tunnel with limited portal emissions
T Smith, Flakt Woods, UK

Automatic control of road tunnel ventilation
A Vardy, University of Dundee, UK; I Nakahori, Sohatsu Systems Laboratory, Japan; S Gunki, A Ichikawa, H Yamashiro, Japan Highway Public Corporation, Japan

Use of wind tunnel testing to develop air rights structures over tunnel exit portals which are compliant with ambient air quality standards
C Nadel, Bechtel/Parsons Brinckerhoff, USA; K Thompson, M Vanderhayden, J Slusarczyk, Rowan Williams Davies & Irwin Inc, Canada

Formulae for the calculation of pressure effects in railway tunnels
H Sockel, Vienna University of Technology, Austria

A model to simulate the temperature evolution into the Channel tunnel
E Michaud, O Vauquelin, Valenciennes University, France; S Le Corronc, Eurotunnel, France

Influence of seepage water on tunnel heat loads
A Vardy, J Brown, University of Dundee, UK

Use of CFD to estimate airflow through PSD's during train dwell
P Miclea, D McKinney et al, Earthtech Inc., USA

CFD modelling of parameters for the fire source in a road tunnel
M Vachon, J Grippay, D Rebuffat, Bertin Technologies, France

Validation of CFD calculations of full scale medium sized fires in a two lane road tunnel
D den Boer, JJ Mertens, NJ van Oerle, Peutz bv, The Netherlands; JF Wijinia, Peutz bv, UK

Design of the tunnel ventilation system at the Terminal 5 station
W Gray, Mott Macdonald, UK

System Design Issues (Rail)
Natural gas in the drainage system of the Loetschberg Base Tunnel
A Busslinger, P Reinke, S Nyfeler, HBI Haerter, Switzerland

The ventilation of metro systems with and without full height platform screen doors
C Pope, DC Eckford, A Owoeye, DA Henson, Mott MacDonald, UK

Aerodynamic aspects of a high-speed railway station with adjoining tunnels
D Wu, T Chiu, Parsons Brinckerhoff (Asia) Ltd, Hong Kong

Rail tunnel temperature stratification and implications for train and tunnel ventilation design
P Gehrke, C Stacey, Maunsell Australia Pty Ltd, Australia; ND Agnew, Gilmore Engineers Pty Ltd, Australia

New unifying procedure for working with pressure tightness of rail passenger vehicles
M Sima, Bombardier Transportation, Sweden

Poster Session I
Research of operation of a ventilation system of underground at a fire in a tunnel
N Petrov, A Krasjuk, I Lugin, Siberian Division Mining Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia

Assessment of possible sonic boom effects in German high speed railway tunnels-experimental and numerical data for the wave steepening process
J Herb, P Deeg, T Tielkes, Deutsche Bahn AG, Germany

3D simulation of airflow and heat transfer in subway station with moving trains
F Waymel, M William-Louis, F Monnoyer, University of Valenciennes, France

Model Rig measurements for SNCF new tunnel portal designs
A Evangelou, T Johnson, AEA Technology Rail, UK; P Costa, N Paradot, A Willaime, SNCF, France

Numerical simulation of thermal environment in underground railways
H Kajiyama, Railway Technical Research Institute, Japan

Automatic control for tunnel axial fans with turning in the move impeller blades
N Petrov, D Zedgenizov, Siberian Division Mining Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia

Full-scale tunnel ventilation airflow measurements for Dallas Area Rapid Transit
B Kenrick, Symonds Group Ltd, UK; M Tabarra, Ove Arup & Partners International, UK; I Sweetland, Yyss Ltd, UK; J Berthoud, FaberMaunsell Ltd, UK; RD Matthews, CenTAR, UK

Tunnel openings to reduce the pressure gradient of the compression wave generated by a train entry into a tunnel: mechanism and efficiency
M Bellenoue, Laboratoire de Combustion et de Detonique, France; B Auvity, Laboratoire de Thermocinetique, France

A method for approximation of maximum heat release rate capacity of an emergency ventilation system using transient CFD simulations- a performance-based design analysis tool
N Shahcheragi, D McKinney, P Miclea, Earth Tech Inc., USA

Tunnel fire modelling comparing CFD and the Froude number method
W Kennedy, K Kang, Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, USA

Poster Session II
Eulerian-Lagrangian model for traffic dynamics and its impact on operational ventilation of road tunnel
M Jicha, J Katolický, Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic

Emergency ventilation control for a tunnel with longitudinal and transverse systems combined
I Nakahori, Sohatsu System Laboratory, Japan; T Imai, F Mori, Nagoya Expressway Association, Japan; A Mizuno, Kogakuin University, Japan

The design of the ventilation and other fire life safety systems for the 2.9km long Filmserstein tunnel in the Swiss Canton of Grisons
J Day, A Turi, N Norghauer, Electrowatt Infra Ltd, Switzerland

A dynamic simulation based design for transverse ventilation system of urban complex tunnels
N Nishiuma, Y Goto, H Fukushima, Misubishi Electric Corporation, Japan; A Mizuno, Kogakuin University, Japan

Tunnel ventilation system for the Shanghai Fuxing East road tunnel
XF Shen, HS Lao, Shanghai Tunnel Engineering & Rail Transit Design & Research Institute, China; S Lai, CW Wong, Parsons Brinckerhoff (Asia) Ltd, Hong Kong

A new method to influence the air flow in transversal ventilated road tunnels in case of fire
R Almbauer, P Sturm, D Öttl, M Bacher, University of Technology Graz, Austria

CFD for duct design in Boston central artery tunnel project
I Maevski*, W Connell**, J Fay*, D Dirgins*, C Donovan*; *Jacobs, USA; ** Parsons Brinckerhoff, USA

Transient analysis of ventilated tunnels with junctions using graph theory
K Maeda, I Nakahori, Sohatsu Systems Laboratory, Japan; A Sou, E Kawase, Kobe University, Japan; A Mizuno, Kogakuin University, Japan

Digital detection of particulate opacity in vehicle tunnels
L de Santoli, F Cumo, N Hattab, University of Roma (La Sapienza), Italy

Frost penetration in vehicle tunnels
BA Břrreson, GA Dahle, SH Enger, Techno Consult, Norway

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