9th International Symposium on
Aerodynamics and Ventilation of Vehicle Tunnels
"Developments for the 21st Century"

Aosta Valley, Italy: 6-8 October 1997

Papers presented at this Symposium, as outlined in the contents below, are available in a bound volume of proceedings from Mrs Marian Rolfe at BHR Group.

The next vent in this series will be in 2009, so please see our new website for details.


Tunnel technology is developing rapidly as longer tunnels are built to help solve the traffic and transportation demands of the twenty first century. Many of the newest tunnels are being designed for situations where other infrastructure is not practical:

  • to alleviate traffic congestion in urban areas
  • to reduce the level of airborne pollutants at ground level
  • to traverse mountainous and underwater areas over long distances

The increase in the number of long tunnels has created demand for better understanding of ventilation techniques and aerodynamics behaviour of vehicles. In addition to demand for design and operational efficiency, this is driven by the need to comply with new safety and environmental legislation.

In road tunnels, the development of more energy efficient power units has led to a smaller amount but greater variety of emissions, with important implications for tunnel ventilation design.

Tunnels in rapid rail links pose particular aerodynamic problems for designers and engineers due to the high speed of the vehicles.

Refurbishment of older tunnels to meet new and more stringent safety legislation places pressure on engineers to provide complex ventilation solutions, often within the constraints of existing infrastructure.

Fire safety has become a particularly important issue, as evidenced by the Channel Tunnel Fire.

Control and monitoring techniques are developing rapidly to keep up with the advances in tunnel design.

All types of tunnel require more efficient ventilation over larger distances. Effective design is required to provide air for tunnel users, while also removing smoke and fumes during emergencies.

The ability to design efficient and safe ventilation systems for long tunnels is being assisted by the rapid advance in analysis, calculation and simulation techniques using sophisticated computational fluid dynamics techniques. The recent publication of the Boston Memorial Tunnel programme fire test results provides a new opportunity to validate these techniques.

Effective tunnel design is essential or the benefits above ground will be offset by problems in the tunnel itself. The technology is developing rapidly and this symposium, held every three years, provides a unique opportunity for researchers, designers, contractors and operators to come together. It presents the ideal forum to exchange and discuss results of the latest developments and to debate the direction and philosophy for future work.

For more information on future conferences please see our list of future events.


The Conference Proceedings are now available containing the following papers.



Mr J R Gillard, Chairman of the Aerodynamics and Ventilation of Vehicle Tunnels Committee

Opening Address

Ventilation of Tunnels in the Italian Motorway Network - Research, Evolution and Trends
Ing Franco Cuaz, SAV (Aosta Valley Motorways) Chairman


New Solutions to An Old Problem: Aerodymanic Measurements in New Vehicle Tunnels
A C de Bruin and R A Maarsingh, National Aerospace Laboratory (NLR); L Swart, Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management
Investigation of the Wall-friction, Pressure Distribution and the Effectiveness of Big Jetfans with Deflection Blades in the Fodnes Tunnel in Norway
G Lotsberg, Public Roads Administration
The Influence of Separation, Inclination and Swirl on Single and Coupled Jet Fans Installation Efficiency
A D Martegani, G Pavesi, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Padua University; C Barbetta, Woods Italiana SpA
The Effects of Jet Plum Configuration on the Installation Efficiency of Jet Fans
W T W Cory, Woods of Colchester; R D Matthews, M Tabarra, B Kenrick, Centre for Tunnel Aerodynamics Research, South Bank University


Study on Prediction Method for Air Quality Control for Complex Road Structures
Y Ota, Chiyoda Engineering Consultants Co Ltd
Stack Effect Use in Road Tunnel Ventilation: An Analysis Based on Experimental Data and Model Simulation
R Borchiellini, V Ferro, V Giaretto, Politecnico di Torino
New French Recommendations for Fire Ventilation in Road Tunnels
D Lacroix, Centre d'Etudes des Tunnels (CETU)
Some Thoughts on the Design of A Road Tunnel Ventilation System for A Fire
M A Berner, J R Day, Electrowatt Engineering Ltd
An Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Duct Flow with An Inclined Jet Injection
A Mizuno, J Sato, R Yano, Kogakuin University
Composition of a Grading Function for Performance of Road Tunnel Ventilation Control
M Ishida, M Fukuhara, Matsushita Electric Industrial Co Ltd;S Nishimori, Dosys Ltd
Development of a Transverse Ventilation Simulator For Long Tunnels with Merging and Diverging Sections in Urban Areas
K Enomoto, Metropolitan Expressway Public Corporation; H Ohashi, K Toshihiro, A Toshiro, U Toru, Toshiba Corporation
A New Pressure Measurement System on a Moving Motorcar for Analyzing Aerodynamics of Road Tunnels
M Fujisaki, H Kawakami, Fuji Electric Co Ltd; N Mizuno, Kogakuin University; T Goto, Dosys Co Ltd; Y Imai, Japan Highway Public Corporation


The Application of Aeroacoustic Principles to the Supression of Fan Noise in Underground Metros
J A B Wills, S Coleman, BMT Fluid Mechanics Limited, C W Pope, Mott MacDonald
Specifying Dampers to Maximize Performance for Tunnel Ventilation Systems
R A Lichtenwald, American Warming & Ventilating
Adjustable Impeller Blades Or Speed Regulation for Axial Fans of Tunnel Ventilation Systems
M Zwicky, IUB Ingenieurunternehmung AG Bern; H P Müller, HBI Haerter
Simulation of Exhaust Flow Noise From Ventilation Tower of Vehicle Tunnels
T Sawai, Technical Center of Metropolitain Expressway; S Mori, Metropolitain Expressway Public Corporation; Y Maruta, Ebara Research Co Ltd; H Tanabe, Ebara Corporation


The Analysis of Uncertainty for an Aerodynamic Drag Test in the Simplon Tunnel
W M S Bradbury, WS Atkins
Simulation of Compressible Flow Phenomena in the SWISSMETRO Tunnel Network
A Rudolf, EPFL, Swiss Federal Inst of Technology
Airshafts for the Alleviation of Pressure Waves in Tunnels of the New Swiss Rail 2000
J Burri, F Zumsteg, HBI Haerter AG
A New Test Facility for the Study of Interacting Pressure Waves and Their Reduction in Tunnels for High Speed Trains
W B de Wolf, A C de Bruin, E A F A Demmenie, National Aerospace Laboratory NLR
A Procedure for Aerodynamically Sizing the Cross-Section of Rail Tunnels
G Figura-Hardy, BR Research Limited; R G Gawthorpe, Consultant; A E Vardy, University of Dundee
Computation of Incompressible Flow in Air Network
A V Gudzovsky, Russian Academy of Sciences


Ventilation Requirements for Diesel-Hauled Train Operation through Tunnels
J Temple, BR Research Ltd
Heat Transfer in a Train/Tunnel Annulus
G Dai, A Vardy, University of Dundee
Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Changing Atmospheric Conditions Inside An Occupied Confined Space with Particular Reference to A Stationary Railway Vehicle in A Tunnel
H Barrow, University of Liverpool; C W Pope, Mott MacDonald, UK
Control for the Heat Regime of the Railway Tunnels Located in Severe Climatic Condition
S G Gendler, Sr. Petersburg State Mining Institute
Influence of Radial Seepage on Temperature Distributions Around Tunnels
J Brown, Z Zeng, A Vardy, University of Dundee
Passenger Safety in Stalled Trains - Modelling of Tunnel Airflows and Carriage Conditions
W Hulbert, S Gilham, S Ferguson, WS Atkins, Safety & Technology; I Kingham, London Underground Limited
Tunnel Climate Simulation for Railway Tunnels
R Bopp, HBI Haerter AG


The Osis Project "EC Brite EuRam III Project "Outil de Simulation Incendie en Souterain"
W M S Bradbury, WS Atkins
An Innovative Design Analysis on Smoke Management of a Semi-transverse Vehicle Tunnel Ventilation System
K H Yang, S K Lee, National Sun Yat-Sen University; B Y Tsuei, T B Su, C H Su, T A Wang, China Engineering Consultants Inc
Analysis of the Flow Structure Downstream of A Fire in A Tunnel
O Vauquelin, Université de Valenciennes; E Casalé, SCETAUROUTE Tunneling Division
Smoke Management for Large Open-Box Underground Transit Stations
D M Plotkin, Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas Inc; W D Kennedy, Parsons Brinckerhoff International Inc
CFD Prediction of Smoke Movement in A Double Track Bored Tunnel, A Cut & Cover Station and A Mined Station in the Athens Metro
J D Castro, N Rhodes, Mott MacDonald; G Leoutsakos, Attiko Metro AE
Fire Emergency Ventilation Capacity for Road Tunnels with Considerable Slope
K Opstad, P Aune, SINTEF Energy; J E Henning, The Norwegian Directorate of Public Roads
ID-computer Simulations and Field Fire Testing Using A Chimney Limited Longitudinal Smoke Control System
B Brousse, C Moret, Centre d'Études des Tunnels (CETU)
A Study of the Effect of Tunnel Aspect Ratio on Control of Smoke Flow in Tunnel Fires
Y Wu, M A Bakar, Sheffield University; G T Atkinson, S Jagger, Health and Safety Laboratory
The Impact of Fire Location in a Subway Station on Computer Simulation Results and Fan Operation Requirements
P C Miclea, D McKinney, ICF Kaiser Engineers Inc
The Memorial Tunnel Fire Ventilation Test Program - Past, Present and Future
A G Bendelius, Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas Inc
The Use of a Zone Model in Predicting Fire and Smoke Propagation in Tunnels
M Altinakar, A Weatherill, P Nasch, Bonnard et Gardel Consulting Engineers Ltd
Monitoring and Computer-based Modelling of Fires in Networks
S B Romanchenko, NPO "Respirator" Ukraine; O V Smirnov, NTGA, Russia
Physical Modelling and Numerical Simulation of Fire Events in Road Tunnels
V Bennardo, E Cafaro, V Ferro, Politecnico di Torino; A Saluzzi, Alenia Aerospazio
An Experimental and Computational Study of the Stability of Stratified Fire Smoke in Model Tunnels
M Tabarra, B Kenrick, R D Matthews, Centre for Tunnel Aerodynamics Research, South Bank University
Computational Fluid Dynamics modelling of fire on a one-third scale model of a Channel Tunnel Heavy Goods Vehicle Shuttle
C J Lea, The Health & Safety Laboratory; I P Jones, M Owens, AEA Technology


Jet Fan Based Ventilation for The Central Artery/Tunnel Project
C Nadel, W Connell, Bechtel/Parsons Brinckerhoff; A E Davies, M F Lepage, Rowan Williams Davies & Irwin Inc
A Simulation System for Various Longitudinal Ventilation Tunnels
T Nakayuki, S Asanuma, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation; M Sato, A Kobayashi, T Narita, Japan Highway Public Corporation, K Sakai, Kogakuin University
The Tunnels Between Aosta and the Mt Blanc: Ventilation Design Anticipating the Evolution in Clean Engines
A Henke, Lombardi Ltd


High Speed Trains Connections Cross-Bordering Northern Italy
F Semenza, Board of the Order of Engineers, Milano
Ventilation of the Meteor Line
D Gabay, Regie Autonome des Transports Parisiens
Prediction of Aerodynamic and Thermodynamic Characteristics of the Athens Metro
G Leoutsakos, Attiko Metro AE; J A Grindley, D A Henson, Mott MacDonald
Tunnel ventilation for the Heathrow express link
W G Gray, Mott MacDonald, I Sweetland, F van Vemden, Ventilatoren Sirocco Howden


The Alleviation of Pressure Transients in a Main Line Railway Tunnel
D A Henson, C W Pope, Mott MacDonald
The Influence of Measures Near the Portal of Railway Tunnels on the Sonic Boom
K Ehrendorfer, H Sockel, Technische Universität Wien
Experimental Study (scale 1/70 th) and Numerical Simulations of Pressure Wave Fronts in Tunnels and Micro-pressure Waves at Tunnel Exits Due to Train-tunnel High Speed Entry
R Grégoire, J M Réty, SNCF; V Morinière, M Bellenoue, T Kageyama, LCD/CNRS
A numerical Simulation of Compression Wave Generated by a Train Entering a Tunnel
T Oda, M Mitsuda, T Tanaka, I Yamagiwa, Kobe Steel Ltd; T Nakura, M Ooishi, Central Japan Railway Company
Entry Compression Wave Generated by a High-Speed Train Entering a Tunnel
K Matsuo, T Aoki, Kyushu University; S Mashimo, E Nakatsu, West Japan Railway Company
Effect of Ballasted Track on Distortion of Pressure Wave in Tunnel and Emission of Micro-Pressure Wave
S Ozawa, Tokyo Engineering University; K Murata, T Maeda, Railway Technical Research Institute


Removal of Carbon Monoxide From Tunnel Exhaust Air by Catalysts
J Heinlein, E Kilic, S Richter, Centre for Energy, Water and Environmental Techniques (ZEWU); H Müller; Degussa AG
Purification Processes for Tunnel Air
K Pucher, Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodynamics, Technical University Graz
Testing of Electrostatic Precipitators Efficiency on Fire Smoke Absorbtion
K Opstad, SINTEF Energy; J E Henning, The Norwegian Directorate of Public Roads
Ceiling Mounted Air Filtration Technology Used for Longitudinal Ventilation
H Anderl, Clean Tunnel Air International a/s; J E Henning, Norwegian Public Road
Denitrification System for Road Tunnel Exhaust
A Katatani, N Kitagawa, Matsusita Seiko Co Ltd; Y Mimura, Matsuhita Seiko Co Ltd; M Ishida Matsusita Industrial Co Ltd; A Hashimoto, Matsushita Battery Industrial Co Ltd
Development of the World's Fastest Tunnel Electrostatic Precipitator
Y Kono, K Kawakami, Fuji Electric Co Ltd; T Ito, Musashi Institute of Technology; T Goto, Dosys Co Ltd; Y Imai, Japan Highway Public Corporation

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