9th International Conference
Pressure Surges

Chester, UK: 24-26 March 2004

Proceedings from this conference are available from Marian Rolfe at BHR Group. For further information on future conferences in this series, please see our Events list or contact Mrs Catriona Rolfe, at BHR Group.


SURGE ANALYSIS - Informing design decisions and dealing with uncertainty
Anticipating and controlling transient response is a critical design activity for ensuring both the safety and integrity of fluid distribution systems and their effective operation.

Whilst important, issues such as pump and pipe sizing are only one aspect of hydraulic design. Predicting transient behaviour, commonly termed surge analysis, is potentially more important and certainly more difficult. It often involves detailed computer modelling attempting to simulate the complex interactions of equipment, pipelines and fluid to normal, fault and emergency events.

Surge analysis is not, as yet, subject to codes of practice and so the design constraints must be based on available knowledge and experience. Currently, there is a lack of consistency in both the definition of these constraints and the software options that need to be deployed to enable the most suitable design decisions to be made.

This was the 9th conference in the 'Pressure Surges' series. Back in the 1970's, we were in the forefront as transient analysis by computer gradually became a reality. In subsequent years, as simulation techniques developed, these conferences premiered the latest breakthroughs from the most active researchers and analysts. The collection of Pressure Surge Conference proceedings contain most of the seminal works in the field and the list of authors reads like a who's-who of acknowledged gurus - Brekke, Martin, Thorley, Wiggert and Wylie to name but a few. A number of these trail-blazers will be present at the conference.

Latterly, as the technology has matured, the research papers have inevitably focused on increasingly esoteric niche topics. In considering the agenda for the 9th gathering, therefore, it seems to be time to pause, take stock, and review exactly how the technology and the knowledge developed over the last 30 years has translated into 'real' life.

It is clear that the appreciation of transient behaviour, if not the analysis itself, must be, and is being, devolved from academia and specialist consultants to the designers, contractors, equipment suppliers and owners. The issues that this conferencet targeted, therefore, were:

  • How do surge analysis results really affect design decisions ?
  • How are cost and risk balanced in surge alleviation decisions ?
  • How should consistent design constraints be defined?
  • Do real systems behave as our models predict ?
  • What are the critical parameters needed to 'get it right'?
  • Is transient analysis ever black & white ?
  • Who takes the risk ?

There are solutions accepted in some industries which are ignored in others that have the same problems. This conference therefore, embraced the widest possible range of sectors: Water, Oil & Gas, Nuclear, Hydroelectric, Petrochemical, Automotive, Aerospace, Building Services, and the widest possible range of systems: potable water, foul water, storm water, full/partially full flow regimes, firewater, cooling systems, water injection, oil and chemical pipelines, power systems, fuel systems.




An overview of the methods for transient control and of the effectiveness of the protection equipment and device specifications: cases and accidents
E Koelle, Koelle Engineering, Brazil

Dynamic performance characterisation of air valves
A C H Kruisbrink, WL / Delft Hydraulics, The Netherlands; F Arregui, M Carlos, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Spain; A Bergant, Litostroj E.I. d.o.o., Slovenia

Transients in water systems generated by air release valves
G De Martino, M Giugni, Universitŕ di Napoli Federico II, Italy; N Fontana, Universitŕ del Sannio, Italy

The interaction between the viscoelastic behaviour of the pipe-wall, unsteady friction and transient pressures
D Covas, H Ramos, Instituto Superior Técnico, Portugal; N Graham, C Maksimovic, Imperial College London, UK

Fracture of plastic pipe by pressure surge
Y Kono, Y Kobayashi, D Tajima, Tohuko-Gakuin University, Japan; K Manabe, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan; M Watanabe, Okayama University, Japan

Design consideration in selection of surge vessels
A Yeats, KBR Infrastructure Europe and Africa, UK

Practical engineering of surge vessel controls
S Williams, Quantum Engineering Developments Ltd, UK


Analysis of fluid-structure interaction in piping systems excited by seismic actions
M M Moreira, University of Évora, Portugal

Time scales and FSI in unsteady liquid-filled pipe flow
A S Tijsseling, Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands; A Vardy, University of Dundee, UK

Water hammer and condensation hammer scenarios in power plants using new measurement system
A Dudlik, S B H Schoenfeld, O Hagemann, Fraunhofer UMSICHT, Germany; H Carl, H-M Prasser, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Germany

Industrial cases of FSI due to internal flows
P Moussou, Ph Lafon, S Potapov, L Paulhiac, EDF R & D, France; A Tijsseling, Technical University of Eindhoven, The Netherlands


Leak detection in water trunk mains using transient pressure signals: field tests in Scottish water
D Covas, H Ramos, Insitituto Superior Técnico, Portugal; B Brunone, University of Perugia, Italy; A Young, Scottish Water, UK

Cepstrum analysis for identifying reflection points in pipeline networks
S B M Beck, W J Staszewski, University of Sheffield, UK

Transient analysis to assess valve status and topology in pipe networks
M Stephens, J Vítkovský, M Lambert, A Simpson, University of Adelaide, Australia; B Karney, University of Toronto, Canada; J Nixon, United Water International, Australia

Burst detection and location in pipe networks using a continuous monitoring technique
D Misiunas, G Olsson, Lund University, Sweden; J Vítkovský, A Simpson, M Lambert, University of Adelaide, Australia


Comparison of one- and three-dimensional models for water hammer analysis in bulb turbine hydroelectric power plants
A Bergant, Listostroj E.I. d.o.o, Slovenia; T Kolšek, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia

A review of non-conventional stabilizing methods used in three hydropower plants
H Brekke, Norconsult AS, Norway

Simulation of auto-oscillation in a hydroelectric power station
A Boldy, HydroSim Consultants Ltd, UK


Use of optimal control strategies: rigid vs elastic model
R K Gupta, Central Water Commission, India; B Petry, IHE, The Netherlands

Pressure surges in high-pressure water hydraulic systems
W Kolarcik, J Zapletal, P Novák, Hydrosystem Project a.s, Czech Republic


Provoost's dynamic characteristic of check valves revisited
J C P Liou, G Li, University of Idaho, USA

Transient analysis - one of most important tasks for long-distance slurry pipeline design
G Shou, Pipeline Systems Inc,

USA Pressure surges in hydrotransport pipelines
Z Franc, J Zapletal,
Hydrosystem Project a.s, Czech Republic

Mitigating the effects of slamming a very large 'check valve' on transient pressures in a cooling water system
A Alameira, Bechtel Water Technology, UK; F A Locher, Bechtel Systems and Infrastructure Inc., USA


A new friction model for transient pipe flows
Z Bouazza, Ecole Hassania des Travaux Publics, Morocco; P E Brunelle, Université de Sherbrooke, Canada

Efficient and accurate calculation of Zeilke and Vardy-Brown unsteady friction in pipe transients
J Vítkovský, M Stephens, M Lambert, A Simpson, University of Adelaide, Australia; A Bergant, Litostroj E.I. d.o.o., Slovenia

Experimental examination of unsteady friction models for transients pipe flow simulation
A Adamkowski, M Lewandowski, Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery of the Polish Academy of Sciences (IMP PAN), Poland

Simulations of transient turbulent flow in liquid lines using time-dependent frictional losses
Z Zarzycki, S Kudzma, Technical University of Szezecin, Poland

Wall shear stress and flow behaviour under tranisent flow in a pipe
J M Abreu, Coimbra University, Portugal; A Betâmio de Almeida, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal

Review and analysis of 1-D and 2-D energy dissipation models for transient flows
M Zhao, M S Ghidaoui, Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, Hong Kong

Signs of unsteady skin friction
A Vardy, J Brown, University of Dundee, UK; S He, The Robert Gordon University, UK


Numerical accuracy - manual vs automatic assessmen
M Shimada, University of Tokyo, Japan; A Vardy, J Brown, University of Dundee, UK

NUMERICAL solution of advection-diffusion using hyperbolic equations
D C Wiggert, Michigan State University, USA

Boundary conditions representation and behaviour in transient 2-D models
W Nixon, M Zhao, M S Ghidaoui, Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, Hong Kong; B Karney, G Nasar, University of Toronto, Canada

Particle swarm optimisation compared to genetic algorithm for calibration of water distribution system
B S Jung, B W Karney, University of Toronto, Canada


Examination of numerical methods and physical modelling of condensation induced water hammer including gas release
T Neuhaus, A Dudlik, Fraunhofer UMSICHT, Germany; H Fahlenkamp, University of Dortmund, Germany

Condensation-induced water hammer in a horizontal refrigerant pipe
C Samuel Martin, Georgia Institute of Technology, USA

Column separation measurements in a large-scale experimental apparatus
A Bergant, Litostroj E.I. d.o.o, Slovenia; E Bournaski, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgaria; F Arregui, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Spain; A Kruisbrink, WL / Delft Hydraulics, The Netherlands

Dynamic effects of transient flows with cavitation in pipe systems
A Borga, Instituto Superior Engenharia Lisboa, Portugal; H Ramos, D Covas, Instituto Superior Técnico, Portugal; A Dudlik, T Neuhaus, Fraunhofer Institute for Environmental, Safety and Energy Technology, Germany

WAHA (WAter HAmmer) Computer Code
J Gale, I Tiselj, 'Jožef Stefan' Institute, Slovenia


Practical design considerations for undulating sewage pumping mains
S Hunt, Hydraulic Analysis Ltd, UK

Pressure transient analysis to inform system design for building and roof drainage systems
J A Swaffield, G B Wright, L B Jack, S Arthur, Heriot Watt University, UK

Multi-phase effects on pressure surge
K Falk, ABB Offshore Systems, Norway; A Bergant, Litostroj E.I. d.o.o., Slovenia; A Dudlik, T Neuhaus FhG/UMSICHT, Germany; S J Murray, Atkins Process, UK; I Pothof, WL/Delft Hydraulics, The Netherlands; S Hunt, Hydraulic Analysis, UK

Case studies - start up of batch transfer lines
M Hamilton, Spectrum Fluid Dynamics, UK

Surge in water systems: some issues facing the designer
S L Murray, S Lecina, J Thollet, P B Clark, Black & Veatch Consulting, UK

The start-up of dry riser lift pumps
J Elder, S Murray, Atkins Process, UK

Case study of a system with air valve problems
J M Matringe, Charlatte SA, France


Where next with Fluid Transients R & D?
David Thorley, City University, UK

A precurssor in waterhammer analysis - rediscovering
Johannes von Kries A S Tijsseling, Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands; A Anderson, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

Closing Address
E B Wylie, University of Michigan, USA

About BHR Group
BHR Group is an independent Research and Technology organisation. Our services to industry are based around our core skills in Fluid Engineering and include contract research and development, consultancy, software design and development, product development, conferences, seminars and specialist training.

More Information
For further information, please contact: Mrs Catriona Rolfe, Conference Organiser, BHR Group Limited, The Fluid Engineering Centre,
Cranfield, Bedford, MK43 0AJ,
Tel: +44 (0)1234 750422 UK Fax: +44 (0)1234 750074

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